Achilles Tendinopathy

Achilles tendinopathy is characterised by degeneration of the fibres of the Achilles tendon. This can occur either directly at the insertion of the tendon into the heel bone (insertional tendinopathy), or in an area approximately 3-10cm above the insertion (non-insertional tendinopathy). It can be associated with inflammation of a bursa or tendon sheath in the same area.

Arthritis of the Foot & Ankle

Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage in a joint causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. Arthritis of the foot and ankle joints can occur due to fractures, dislocations, inflammatory diseases, or congenital deformities.

Bunions (Hallux Valgus)

A bunion is a prominence over the joint where the big toe joins the rest of the foot (1st metatarsophalangeal joint). A bunion usually develops due to a hallux valgus deformity, which is when the 1st metatarsal bone gradually deviates inwards, towards the opposite foot. The big toe moves in the opposite direction, towards the lesser toes, and this leaves the head of the 1st metatarsal bone prominent under the skin.

Hammer & Claw Toes

Lesser toe deformities are one of the most common forefoot complaints. Sometimes lesser toe problems are erroneously considered minor, when in fact they can have a significant impact on a patient’s life.

Clubfoot (Congenital Talipes Equinovarus)

Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs. Several factors such as genetics, teratogenic drugs and chemicals can cause congenital deformities.

Diabetic Foot

Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at a high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet. If left untreated, these wounds can cause serious problems that can lead to infections and eventually gangrene, which may require amputation.

Heel Pain

The heel is a cushion of specialised fatty tissue at the back part of the foot that protects the muscles, ligaments and the heel bone (calcaneus). Heel pain is a common foot condition, seen in one out of 10 people with at least one episode in their life time. It is essential to make a correct diagnosis of the cause of heel pain to direct a person for appropriate treatment.

Ingrown Toenail

Ingrown toenails are a very common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the sides or corner of the nail grows inwards and penetrates the skin of the toe. Pain is often accompanied by swelling and redness. The condition is known as onychocryptosis or unguis incarnatus. It is often seen in adults rather than children and is more common in men than women.

Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma refers to a nerve injury in between the toes which causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue. Compression or chronic irritation of this interdigital nerve is the main cause of Morton’s neuroma.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation and degeneration of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and forms the arch of your foot. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It is most often seen in middle-aged men and women, but may also occur in those who are constantly on their feet such as soldiers, labourers and retail workers.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

The posterior tibial tendon passes around the ankle to attach the tibialis posterior muscle (one of the deep calf muscles) to the bones of the mid foot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking. Inflammation or a tear of this tendon may cause dysfunction, leading to pain, collapse of the medial arch and the development of a flatfoot.


Sesamoiditis is inflammation of one of the sesamoid bones underneath the big toe (1st metatarsal head). It is commonly seen in ballet dancers, sprinters and basketball players. It is an overuse injury caused by an increased pressure under the sesamoid bones resulting in chronic inflammation.

Big Toe Arthritis (Hallux Rigidus)

Hallux rigidus is an arthritic condition characterised by stiffness and rigidity of the big toe. Arthritis of the foot commonly occurs at the big toe joint (1st metatarsophalangeal [MTP] joint). The condition can be quite painful as the big toe usually bends with every step you take.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is the space that is formed between the underlying bones on the inside of the ankle and the overlying soft tissues. It contains the tendons that travel around the inside of the ankle (tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus), along with the tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery. Tarsal tunnel syndrome refers to a condition where the posterior tibial nerve that lies within the tarsal tunnel is compressed.

Cavus Foot Deformity

A cavus foot or high-arched foot refers to a condition that can vary from a slightly high arch to a severe foot deformity. Cavus foot can lead to symptoms such as pain and instability. The condition may be inherited or associated with neurological disorders or other conditions.